From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the country. For other uses, see Pakistan (disambiguation).

Islamic Republic of Pakistan
اسلامی جمہوریۂ پاکستان
Islāmī Jumhūrī-ye Pākistān

Flag Emblem
Motto: Faith, Unity, Discipline[1]
Urdu: ایمان ، اتحاد ، تنظیم
Iman, Ittehad, Tanzeem
Anthem: Qaumī Tarāna

Area constituting Pakistan in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled territory in light green
Capital Islamabad
33°40′N 73°10′E
Largest city Karachi
Official language(s) Urdu
English (Pakistani)
Regional languages Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashto, Balochi, Saraiki, Hindko, Brahui[2][3]
Demonym Pakistani
Government Federal Parliamentary republic
 - President Asif Ali Zardari
 - Prime Minister Raja Pervaiz Ashraf
 - Leader of the House Nayyar Hussain Bukhari
 - Speaker of the House Fahmida Mirza
 - Chief Justice Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry
Legislature Majlis-e-Shoora
 - Upper house Senate
 - Lower house National Assembly
 - Conception of Pakistan 29 December 1930
 - Pakistan Declaration 28 January 1933
 - Pakistan Resolution 23 March 1940
 - Independence from the United Kingdom
 - Declared 14 August 1947
 - Islamic Republic 23 March 1956
 - Total 796,095 km2 [a](36th)
307,374 sq mi
 - Water (%) 3.1
 - 2011 estimate 177,100,000[5] (6th)
 - 1998 census 132,352,279[6]
 - Density 214.3/km2 (55th)
555/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2011 estimate
 - Total $488.580 billion[7]
 - Per capita $2,787[7]
GDP (nominal) 2011 estimate
 - Total $210.566 billion[7]
 - Per capita $1,201[7]
Gini (2005) 31.2 (medium)
HDI (2011) 0.504[8] (low) (145th)
Currency Pakistani Rupee (Rs.) (PKR)
Time zone PST (UTC+5)
 - Summer (DST) PDT (UTC+6)
Drives on the left[9]
ISO 3166 code PK
Internet TLD .pk
Calling code 92
Pakistan (i/ˈpækɨstæn/ or i/pɑːkiˈstɑːn/; Urdu: پاکستان) (Urdu pronunciation: [paːkɪˈst̪aːn] ( listen)), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (Urdu: اسلامی جمہوریۂ پاکستان), is a sovereign country in South Asia. It sits at the crossroads of the strategically important regions of South Asia, Central Asia and Western Asia. It has a 1,046-kilometre (650 mi) coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west and north, Iran to the southwest and China in the far northeast. It is separated from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's narrow Wakhan Corridor in the north, and it shares a marine border with Oman.
The territory of modern Pakistan was the site of several ancient cultures, including the Neolithic Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation, and has undergone invasions or settlements by Hindu, Persian, Indo-Greek, Islamic, Turco-Mongol, Afghan and Sikh cultures. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Indian Mauryan Empire, the Persian Achaemenid Empire, the Arab Umayyad Caliphate, the Mongol Empire, the Mughal Empire, the Durrani Empire, the Sikh Empire and the British Empire. As a result of the Pakistan Movement led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah and India's struggle for independence, Pakistan was created in 1947 as an independent nation for Muslims from the regions in the east and west of India where there was a Muslim majority. Initially a dominion, Pakistan adopted a new constitution in 1956, becoming an Islamic republic. A civil war in 1971 resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh.
Pakistan is a federal parliamentary republic consisting of four provinces and four federal territories. With a population exceeding 170 million people, it is the sixth most populous country in the world and has the largest Muslim population after Indonesia. It is an ethnically and linguistically diverse country, with a similar variation in its geography and wildlife. It has a semi-industrialised economy which is the 27th largest in the world in terms of purchasing power and 47th largest in terms of nominal GDP. Pakistan's post-independence history has been characterised by periods of military rule, political instability and conflicts with neighbouring India. The country continues to face challenging problems, including terrorism, poverty, illiteracy and corruption.
A regional and middle power,[10][11] Pakistan has the seventh largest standing armed forces in the world and is a declared nuclear weapons state, being the first and only nation in the Muslim world, and the second in South Asia, to have that status. It is a founding member of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (now the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation) and is a member of the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations and the G20 developing nations.
1 Etymology
2 History
2.1 Early and medieval age
2.2 Colonial period
2.3 Independence and Modern Pakistan
3 Politics
3.1 Administrative divisions
3.2 Military
3.3 Kashmir conflict
4 Geography and climate
4.1 Flora and fauna
5 Infrastructure
5.1 Economy
5.2 Transport
5.3 Science and technology
5.4 Education
6 Demographics
6.1 Religion
7 Culture and society
7.1 Media and entertainment
7.2 Literature
7.3 Architecture
7.4 Cuisine
7.5 Sports
8 Notes
9 References
10 Further reading
11 External links

The name Pakistan literally means "Land of (the) Pure" in Urdu and Persian. It was coined in 1933 as Pakstan by Choudhary Rahmat Ali, a Pakistan Movement activist, who published it in his pamphlet Now or Never,[12] using it as an acronym ("thirty million Muslim brethren who live in PAKSTAN") referring to the names of the five northern regions of the Indian subcontinent: Punjab, North-West Frontier Province (Afghan Province), Kashmir, Sind, and Baluchistan".[13][14][15] The letter i was incorporated to ease pronunciation and form the linguistically correct name.[16]

Main articles: History of Pakistan and History of South Asia
Early and medieval age

1st century AD Standing Buddha from Gandhara, Pakistan
Some of the earliest ancient human civilisations in South Asia originated from areas encompassing present-day Pakistan. The earliest known inhabitants in the region were the Soanians, who settled in the Soan Valley of Punjab.[17] The Indus region, which covers most of Pakistan, was the site of several successive ancient cultures including the Neolithic Mehrgarh[18] and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation (2800–1800 BCE) at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro.[19][20]
The Vedic Civilization (1500–500 BCE), characterised by Indo-Aryan culture, laid the foundations of Hinduism, which would become well established in the region.[21][22] Multan was an important Hindu pilgrimage centre.[23] The Vedic civilisation flourished in the ancient Gandhāran city of Takṣaśilā, now Taxila in Punjab.[18] Successive ancient empires and kingdoms ruled the region: the Persian Achaemenid Empire around 519 BCE, Alexander the Great's empire in 326 BCE[24] and the Maurya Empire founded by Chandragupta Maurya and extended by Ashoka the Great until 185 BCE.[18] The Indo-Greek Kingdom founded by Demetrius of Bactria (180–165 BCE) included Gandhara and Punjab and reached its greatest extent under Menander (165–150 BCE), prospering the Greco-Buddhist culture in the region.[18] [25] Taxila had one of the earliest universities and centres of higher education in the world.[26][27][28][29]

Mughal emperor Aurangzeb seated on a golden throne in the Durbar
The Medieval period (642–1219 CE) is defined by the spread of Islam in the region. During this period, Sufi missionaries played a pivotal role in converting a majority of the regional Buddhist and Hindu population to Islam.[30] The Rai Dynasty (489–632 CE) of Sindh, at its zenith, ruled this region and the surrounding territories.[31]
The Arab general Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh and Multan in southern Punjab in 711CE.[32] The Pakistan government's official chronology identifies this as the point where the "foundation" of Pakistan was laid.[32] This conquest set the stage for the rule of several successive Muslim empires in the region, including the Ghaznavid Empire (975–1187 CE), the Ghorid Kingdom and the Delhi Sultanate (1206–1526 CE). The Lodi dynasty, the last of the Delhi Sultanate, was replaced by the Mughal Empire (1526–1857 CE). The Mughals introduced Persian literature and high culture, establishing the roots of Indo-Persian culture in the region.[33]
Colonial period
Main articles: Pakistan Movement, Partition of India, and British Raj

The 1940 Working Committee of the Muslim League in Lahore
The gradual decline of the Mughal Empire in the early eighteenth century enabled Sikh rulers to control large areas until the British East India Company gained ascendancy over South Asia.[34] The Indian Rebellion of 1857, also known as the Sepoy Mutiny, was the region's major armed struggle against the British.[35] The largely non-violent freedom struggle led by the Indian National Congress engaged millions of protesters in mass campaigns of civil disobedience in the 1920s and 1930s .[36][37]

Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder and first Governor General of Pakistan, delivering the opening address of the 1947 Constitutional Assembly, explaining the foundations for the new state of Pakistan.
The All-India Muslim League rose to popularity in the late 1930s amid fears of under-representation and neglect of Muslims in politics. In his presidential address of 29 December 1930, Muhammad Iqbal called for "the formation of a consolidated North-West Indian Muslim State" consisting of Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Sind and Baluchistan.[38] Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan, espoused the two-nation theory and led the Muslim League to adopt the Lahore Resolution of 1940, popularly known as the Pakistan Resolution.[34] In early 1947, Britain announced the decision to end its rule in India. In June 1947, the nationalist leaders of British India—including Jawaharlal Nehru and Abul Kalam Azad representing the Congress, Jinnah representing the Muslim League, and Master Tara Singh representing the Sikhs—agreed to the proposed terms of transfer of power and independence.[39]
The modern state of Pakistan was established on 14 August 1947 (27 Ramadan 1366 in the Islamic Calendar) in the eastern and northwestern regions of British India, where there was a Muslim majority. It comprised the provinces of Balochistan, East Bengal, the North-West Frontier Province, West Punjab and Sindh.[34][39] The partition of the Punjab and Bengal provinces led to communal riots across India and Pakistan; millions of Muslims moved to Pakistan and millions of Hindus and Sikhs moved to India.[40] Dispute over the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir led to the First Kashmir War in October 1947.[41][42]
Independence and Modern Pakistan

The Minar-e-Pakistan, a symbol of Pakistan's independence
From 1947 to 1956, Pakistan was a dominion in the Commonwealth of Nations under two monarchs.[43] In 1947, King George VI relinquished the title of Emperor of India and became King of Pakistan. He retained that title until his death on 6 February 1952, after which Queen Elizabeth II became Queen of Pakistan.[43] She retained that title until Pakistan became an Islamic and Parliamentary republic in 1956,[44] but civilian rule was stalled by a military coup led by the Army Commander-in-Chief, General Ayub Khan. The country experienced exceptional growth until a second war with India took place in 1965 and led to economic downfall and internal instability.[45][46] Ayub Khan's successor, General Yahya Khan (President from 1969 to 1971), had to deal with a devastating cyclone which caused 500,000 deaths in East Pakistan.[47]
In 1970, Pakistan held its first democratic elections since independence, that were meant to mark a transition from military rule to democracy, but after the East Pakistani Awami League won, Yahya Khan and the ruling elite in West Pakistan refused to hand over power.[48][49] There was civil unrest in the East, and the Pakistan Army launched a military operation on 25 March 1971, aiming to regain control of the province.[48][49] The targeting of civilians and other atrocities during this operation led to a declaration of independence and to the waging of a war of liberation by the Bengali Mukti Bahini forces in East Pakistan, with support from India.[49][50] Independent estimates of civilian deaths during this period range from 1 million to 3 million.[51] Attacks on Indian military bases by the Pakistan Air Force in December 1971 sparked the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, which ended with the formal secession of East Pakistan as the independent state of Bangladesh.[49]
With Pakistan's defeat in the war, Yahya Khan was replaced by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto as Chief Martial Law Administrator. Civilian rule resumed from 1972 to 1977.[52] During this period Pakistan began to build nuclear weapons; the country's first atomic power plant was inaugurated in 1972.[53][54] Civilian rule ended with a military coup in 1977, and in 1979 General Zia-ul-Haq became the third military president. Military government lasted until 1988, during which Pakistan became one of the fastest-growing economies in South Asia.[55] Zia consolidated nuclear development and increased Islamization of the state.[56] During this period, Pakistan helped to subsidise and distribute US resources to factions of the Mujahideen movement against the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.[57][58]
Zia died in a plane crash in 1988, and Benazir Bhutto, daughter of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, was elected as the first female Prime Minister of Pakistan. She was followed by Nawaz Sharif, and over the next decade the two leaders fought for power, alternating in office while the country's situation worsened; economic indicators fell sharply, in contrast to the 1980s. This period is marked by political instability, misgovernance and corruption.[59][60] In May 1998, while Sharif was Prime Minister, India tested five nuclear weapons and tension with India heightened to an extreme: Pakistan detonated six nuclear weapons of its own in the Chagai-I and Chagai-II tests later in the same month. Military tension between the two countries in the Kargil district led to the Kargil War of 1999, after which General Pervez Musharraf took over through a bloodless coup d'état and assumed vast executive powers.[61][62]
Musharraf ruled Pakistan as head of state from 1999 to 2001 and as President from 2001 to 2008, a period of extensive economic reform[63] and Pakistan's involvement in the US-led war on terrorism. On 15 November 2007, Pakistan's National Assembly became the first to completed its full five-year term, and new elections were called.[64] After the assassination of Benazir Bhutto in December 2007, her Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) won the largest number of seats in the 2008 elections, and party member Yousaf Raza Gillani was sworn in as Prime Minister.[65] Musharraf resigned from the presidency on 18 August 2008 when threatened with impeachment, and was succeeded by Asif Ali Zardari, the current President.[66][67][68] Gillani was disqualified from membership of parliament and as prime minister by the Supreme Court of Pakistan in June 2012.[69] By its own estimates, Pakistan's involvement in the war on terrorism has cost up to $67.93 billion,[70][71] thousands of casualties and nearly 3 million displaced civilians.[72]

Main articles: Government of Pakistan, Politics of Pakistan, and Foreign relations of Pakistan

Pakistan is a democratic parliamentary federal republic with Islam as the state religion. The first Constitution of Pakistan was adopted in 1956 but suspended by Ayub Khan in 1958. The Constitution of 1973—suspended by Zia-ul-Haq in 1977 but reinstated in 1985—is the country's most important document, laying the foundations of the current government.[73]
The bicameral legislature comprises a 100-member Senate and a 342-member National Assembly. The President is the head of state and commander-in-chief of the armed forces and is elected by an electoral college. The prime minister is usually the leader of the largest party in the National Assembly. Each province has a similar system of government, with a directly elected Provincial Assembly in which the leader of the largest party or alliance becomes Chief Minister. Provincial governors are appointed by the President.[73] The Pakistani military establishment has played an influential role in mainstream politics throughout Pakistan's political history. Presidents brought in by military coups ruled in 1958–1971, 1977–1988 and 1999–2008.[74]

Pakistan's foreign policy focuses on security against threats to national identity and territorial integrity, and on the cultivation of close relations with Muslim countries. A 2004 briefing on foreign policy for Pakistani Parliamentarians says, "Pakistan highlights sovereign equality of states, bilateralism, mutuality of interests, and non-interference in each other's domestic affairs as the cardinal features of its foreign policy."[75] The country is an active member of the United Nations. It is a founding member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), in which it has promoted Musharraf's concept of "Enlightened Moderation".[76][77][78] Pakistan is also a member of Commonwealth of Nations,[79] the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), the Economic Cooperation Organisation (ECO)[80][81] and the G20 developing nations.[82] India's nuclear tests were seen as a threat to Pakistan and led it to establish itself as a nuclear power.[83] Pakistan now maintains a policy of "credible minimum deterrence".[84]
Pakistan maintains good relations with all Arab and most other Muslim countries. Since the Sino-Indian War of 1962, Pakistan's closest strategic, military and economic ally has been China. The relationship has survived changes of governments and variations in the regional and global situation.[85][86][87] Pakistan and India continue to be rivals. The Kashmir conflict remains the major point of rift; three of their four wars were over this territory.[88] Pakistan has had mixed relations with the United States. As an anti-Soviet power in the 1950s and during Soviet-Afghan War in the 1980s, Pakistan was one of the closest allies of the US,[75][89] but relations soured in the 1990s when the US imposed sanctions because of Pakistan's possession and testing of nuclear weapons.[90] The US war on terrorism led initially to an improvement in the relationship, but it was strained by a divergence of interests and resulting mistrust during the war in Afghanistan and by issues related to terrorism.[91][92][93][94] Since 1948, there has been an ongoing, and at times fluctuating, violent conflict in the southwestern province of Balochistan between various Baloch separatist groups, who seek greater political autonomy, and the central government of Pakistan.[95]
Administrative divisions
Main articles: Administrative units of Pakistan and Districts of Pakistan
Pakistan is a federation of four provinces: Punjab, Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan, as well as the Islamabad Capital Territory and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas in the northwest, which include the Frontier Regions. The government of Pakistan exercises de facto jurisdiction over the western parts of the disputed Kashmir region, organised into the separate political entities Azad Kashmir and Gilgit–Baltistan (formerly Northern Areas). The Gilgit–Baltistan Empowerment and Self-Governance Order of 2009 assigned a province-like status to the latter, giving it self-government.[96]
Local government follows a three-tier system of districts, tehsils and union councils, with an elected body at each tier.[97] There are about 130 districts altogether, of which Azad Kashmir has ten[98] and Gilgit–Baltistan seven.[99] The Tribal Areas comprise seven tribal agencies and six small frontier regions detached from neighbouring districts.[100]
Clickable map of the four provinces and four federal territories of Pakistan.

Law enforcement in Pakistan is carried out by federal and provincial police agencies. The four provinces and the Islamabad Capital Territory each have a civilian police force with jurisdiction limited to the relevant province or territory. At the federal level, there are a number of civilian agencies with nationwide jurisdictions; including the Federal Investigation Agency, the National Highways and Motorway Police, and several paramilitary forces such as the Pakistan Rangers and the Frontier Corps.[101]
The court system of Pakistan is organised as a hierarchy, with the Supreme Court at the apex, below which are High Courts, Federal Shariat Courts (one in each province and one in the federal capital), District Courts (one in each district), Judicial Magistrate Courts (in every town and city), Executive Magistrate Courts and Civil Courts. Pakistan's penal code has limited jurisdiction in the Tribal Areas, where law is largely derived from tribal customs.[101][102]
Main article: Pakistan Armed Forces

Pakistani F-16s in preparation for training with the USAF
The armed forces of Pakistan are the eighth largest in the world in terms of numbers in full-time service, with about 617,000 personnel on active duty and 513,000 reservists in 2010.[103] They came into existence after independence in 1947, and the military establishment has frequently been involved in the politics of Pakistan ever since.[74] The three main branches are the Army (headed by General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani[104]), the Navy and the Air Force, and they are supported by a number of paramilitary forces.[105] The National Command Authority is responsible for employment, for control of the development of all strategic nuclear organisations and for Pakistan's nuclear doctrine. Pakistan's defence forces maintain close military relations with China and the United States and import military equipment mainly from them.[106] The defence forces of China and Pakistan carry out joint military exercises.[105][107][108] Conscription may be introduced in times of emergency, but it has never been imposed.[109]

A team of Pakistani Special Service Wing soldiers during training
Since independence, Pakistan has been involved in four wars with neighbouring India, beginning in 1947 with the First Kashmir War, when Pakistan gained control of present-day Azad Kashmir and Gilgit–Baltistan. The two countries were at war again in 1965 and in 1971,[110] and most recently in the Kargil War of 1999.[61] The Army has also been engaged in several skirmishes with Afghanistan on the western border: in 1961, it repelled a major Afghan incursion.[111] During the Soviet war in Afghanistan, Pakistan shot down several intruding pro-Soviet Afghan communist aircraft and provided covert support to factions of the Afghan mujahideen through the Inter-Services Intelligence agency.[112]
Apart from its own conflicts, Pakistan has been an active participant in United Nations peacekeeping missions. It played a major role in rescuing trapped American soldiers from Mogadishu, Somalia, in 1993 in Operation Gothic Serpent.[113][114][115] Pakistani armed forces are the largest troop contributors to UN peacekeeping missions.[116]

PNS Shah Jahan and PNS Tippu Sultan during a Pakistan Navy drill
Pakistan maintained significant numbers of troops in some Arab countries in defence, training and advisory roles.[117][118] During the Six-Day War in 1967 and the Yom Kippur War in October 1973, PAF pilots volunteered to go to the Middle East to support Egypt and Syria, which were in a state of war with Israel; they shot down ten Israeli planes in the Six-Day War.[113] In 1979, at the request of the Saudi government, commandos of the Pakistani Special Service Group were rushed to assist Saudi forces in Mecca to lead the operation of the Grand Mosque Seizure.[119] In 1991 Pakistan got involved with the Gulf War and sent 5,000 troops as part of a US-led coalition, specifically for the defence of Saudi Arabia.[120]
Pakistani armed forces have been engaged in a war in North-West Pakistan since 2001, mainly against the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan.[121][122] Major operations undertaken by the Army include Operation Black Thunderstorm and Operation Rah-e-Nijat.[123][124]
Kashmir conflict
Main article: Kashmir conflict
The Kashmir conflict is a territorial dispute between India and Pakistan over the Kashmir region, the most northwesterly region of South Asia. The two countries have fought at least three wars over Kashmir—the Indo-Pakistani Wars of 1947, 1965 and 1999—and several skirmishes over the Siachen Glacier.[88] India claims the entire state of Jammu and Kashmir and administers approximately 45.1% of the region, including most of Jammu, the Kashmir Valley, Ladakh, and the Siachen Glacier. India's claim is contested by Pakistan, which controls approximately 38.2% of Kashmir, consisting of Azad Kashmir and the northern areas of Gilgit and Baltistan.[88][125]
The conflict of Kashmir has its origin in 1947, when British India was separated into the two states of Pakistan and India. As part of the partition process, both countries had agreed that the rulers of princely states would be allowed to opt for membership of either Pakistan or India, or in special cases to remain independent.[126] India claims Kashmir on the basis of the Instrument of Accession, a legal agreement with Kashmir's leaders executed by Maharaja Hari Singh, then ruler of Kashmir, agreeing to accede the area to India.[127][128] Pakistan claims Kashmir on the basis of a Muslim majority and of geography, the same principles that were applied for the creation of the two independent states.[129][130] India referred the dispute to the United Nations on 1 January 1948.[131] In a resolution in 1948, the UN asked Pakistan to remove most of its troops. A plebiscite would then be held. However, Pakistan failed to vacate the region. A ceasefire was reached in 1949 and a Line of Control was established, dividing Kashmir between the two countries.[126]
Pakistan's position is that the people of Jammu and Kashmir have the right to determine their future through impartial elections as mandated by the United Nations.[132] India has stated that it believes that Kashmir is an integral part of India, referring to the 1972 Simla Agreement and to the fact that elections take place regularly.[133] Certain Kashmiri independence groups believe that Kashmir should be independent of both India and Pakistan.[88]
Geography and climate

Main articles: Geography of Pakistan and Climate of Pakistan
See also: Geology of Pakistan and Extreme points of Pakistan

K2 in Gilgit–Baltistan is the second-highest mountain on Earth, with a peak elevation of 8,611 metres (28,251 ft). It is part of the Karakoram range.
Pakistan covers an area of 796,095 km2 (307,374 sq mi), approximately equal to the combined land areas of France and the United Kingdom. It is the 36th largest nation by total area, although this ranking varies depending on how the disputed territory of Kashmir is counted. Pakistan has a 1,046 km (650 mi) coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south[134] and land borders of 6,774 km (4,209 mi) in total: 2,430 km (1,510 mi) with Afghanistan, 523 km (325 mi) with China, 2,912 km (1,809 mi) with India and 909 km (565 mi) with Iran.[73] It shares a marine border with Oman,[135] and is separated from Tajikistan by the cold, narrow Wakhan Corridor.[136] Pakistan occupies a geopolitically important location at the crossroads of South Asia, the Middle East and Central Asia.[137]
Geologically, Pakistan overlaps the Indian tectonic plate in its Sindh and Punjab provinces; Balochistan and most of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa are within the Eurasian plate, mainly on the Iranian plateau. Gilgit–Baltistan and Azad Kashmir lie along the edge of the Indian plate and hence are prone to violent earthquakes. Ranging from the coastal areas of the south to the glaciated mountains of the north, Pakistan's landscapes vary from plains to deserts, forests, hills and plateaus .[138]

Kund Malir beach, Baluchistan
Pakistan is divided into three major geographic areas: the northern highlands, the Indus River plain and the Balochistan Plateau.[139] The northern highlands contain the Karakoram, Hindu Kush and Pamir mountain ranges (see mountains of Pakistan), which contain some of the world's highest peaks, including five of the fourteen eight-thousanders (mountain peaks over 8,000 metres or 26,250 feet), which attract adventurers and mountaineers from all over the world, notably K2 (8,611 m or 28,251 ft) and Nanga Parbat (8,126 m or 26,660 ft).[140] The Balochistan Plateau lies in the west and the Thar Desert in the east. The 1,609 km (1,000 mi) Indus River and its tributaries flow through the country from the Kashmir region to the Arabian Sea. There is an expanse of alluvial plains along it in Punjab and Sindh.[141]
The climate varies from tropical to temperate, with arid conditions in the coastal south. There is a monsoon season with frequent flooding due to heavy rainfall, and a dry season with significantly less rainfall or none at all. There are four distinct seasons: a cool, dry winter from December through February; a hot, dry spring from March through May; the summer rainy season, or southwest monsoon period, from June through September; and the retreating monsoon period of October and November.[34] Rainfall varies greatly from year to year, and patterns of alternate flooding and drought are common.[142]
Flora and fauna
Main articles: Flora of Pakistan and Fauna of Pakistan

Jasmine, Pakistan's national flower[143]
The diversity of landscapes and climates in Pakistan allows a wide variety of trees and plants to flourish. The forests range from coniferous alpine and subalpine trees such as spruce, pine and deodar cedar in the extreme northern mountains, through deciduous trees in most of the country (for example the mulberry-like shisham found in the Sulaiman Mountains), to palms such as coconut and date in southern Punjab, southern Balochistan and all of Sindh. The western hills are home to juniper, tamarisk, coarse grasses and scrub plants. Mangrove forests form much of the coastal wetlands along the coast in the south.[144]
Coniferous forests are found at altitudes ranging from 1,000 to 4,000 metres in most of the northern and northwestern highlands. In the xeric regions of Balochistan, date palm and Ephedra are common. In most of Punjab and Sindh, the Indus plains support tropical and subtropical dry and moist broadleaf forestry as well as tropical and xeric shrublands. These forests are mostly of mulberry, acacia, and eucalyptus.[145] About 2.2% or 1,687,000 hectares (16,870 km2) of Pakistan was forested in 2010.[146]
The fauna of Pakistan reflects its varied climates too. Around 668 bird species are found there:[147][148] crows, sparrows, mynas, hawks, falcons, and eagles commonly occur. Palas, Kohistan, has a significant population of Western Tragopan.[149] Many birds sighted in Pakistan are migratory, coming from Europe, Central Asia and India.[150]

Markhor, Pakistan's national animal[143]
The southern plains are home to mongooses, civets, hares, the Asiatic jackal, the Indian pangolin, the jungle cat and the desert cat. There are mugger crocodiles in the Indus, and wild boar, deer, porcupines and small rodents are common in the surrounding areas. The sandy scrublands of central Pakistan are home to Asiatic jackals, striped hyenas, wildcats and leopards.[151][152] The lack of vegetative cover, the severe climate and the impact of grazing on the deserts have left wild animals in a precarious position. The chinkara is the only animal that can still be found in significant numbers in Cholistan. A small number of nilgai are found along the Pakistan-India border and in some parts of Cholistan.[151][153] A wide variety of animals live in the mountainous north, including the Marco Polo sheep, the urial (a subspecies of wild sheep), Markhor and Ibex goats, the Asian black bear and the Himalayan brown bear.[151][154][155] Among the rare animals found in the area are the snow leopard,[154] the Asiatic cheetah[156] and the blind Indus river dolphin, of which there are believed to be about 1,100 remaining, protected at the Indus River Dolphin Reserve in Sindh.[154][157] In total, 174 mammals, 177 reptiles, 22 amphibians, 198 freshwater fish species and 5,000 species of invertebrates (including insects) have been recorded in Pakistan.[147][148]
The flora and fauna of Pakistan suffer from a number of problems. Pakistan has the second-highest rate of deforestation in the world. This, along with hunting and pollution, is causing adverse effects on the ecosystem. The government has established a large number of protected areas, wildlife sanctuaries, and game reserves to deal with these issues.[147][148]

Main article: Economy of Pakistan

Blue Area, the commercial hub of Islamabad
Pakistan is a rapidly developing country[158][159][160] and is one of the Next Eleven, the eleven countries that, along with the BRICs, have a high potential to become the world's largest economies in the 21st century.[161] The economy is semi-industrialized, with centres of growth along the Indus River.[162][163][164] The diversified economies of Karachi and Punjab's urban centres coexist with less developed areas in other parts of the country.[163] Pakistan's estimated nominal GDP as of 2011 is US$202 billion. The estimated nominal per capita GDP is US$1,197, GDP (PPP) per capita is US$2,851 (international dollars), and debt-to-GDP ratio is 55.5%.[165][166] A 2010 report by RAD-AID positioned Pakistan's economy at 27th largest in the world by purchasing power and 45th largest in absolute dollars.[164] It is South Asia's second largest economy, representing about 15 percent of regional GDP.[167][168]
Pakistan's economic growth since its inception has been varied. It has been slow during periods of civilian rule, but excellent during the three periods of military rule, although the foundation for sustainable and equitable growth was not formed.[46] The early to middle 2000s was a period of rapid reform; the government raised development spending, which reduced poverty levels by 10% and increased GDP by 3%.[73][169] The economy cooled again from 2007.[73] Inflation reached 25% in 2008[170] and Pakistan had to depend on an aggressive fiscal policy backed by the International Monetary Fund to avoid possible bankruptcy.[171][172] A year later, the Asian Development Bank reported that Pakistan's economic crisis was easing.[173] The inflation rate for the fiscal year 2010–11 was 14.1%.[174]

A mango orchard in Multan, southern Punjab: agriculture is the backbone of Pakistan's economy
Pakistan is one of the largest producers of natural commodities, and its labour market is the 10th largest in the world. Around 600,000 Pakistanis went abroad to work in 2009. Expatriate workers send remittances of close to US$8 billion annually—the largest source of foreign exchange apart from exports.[175] According to the World Trade Organization Pakistan's share of overall world exports is declining; it contributed only 0.128% in 2007.[176] The trade deficit in the fiscal year 2010–11 was US$11.217 billion.[177]
The structure of the Pakistani economy has changed from a mainly agricultural to a strong service base. Agriculture now[when?] accounts for only 21.2% of the GDP. Even so, according to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Pakistan produced 21,591,400 metric tons of wheat in 2005, more than all of Africa (20,304,585 metric tons) and nearly as much as all of South America (24,557,784 metric tons).[178] The service and industrial sectors account for 52.4% and 26.4% of GDP respectively.[179] Between 2002 and 2007 there was substantial foreign investment in Pakistan's banking and energy sectors.[180] Other important industries include clothing and textiles (accounting for nearly 60% of exports), food processing, chemicals manufacture, iron and steel.[181] There is great potential for tourism in Pakistan, but it is severely affected by the country's instability.[182]
Main article: Transport in Pakistan
The transport sector accounts for 10.5% of Pakistan's GDP.[183] Its road infrastructure is better than those of India, Bangladesh and Indonesia, but the rail system lags behind those of India and China, and aviation infrastructure also needs improvement.[184] There is scarcely any inland water transportation system, and coastal shipping only meets minor local requirements.[185]
Road form the backbone of Pakistan's transport system; a total road length of 259,618 km accounts for 91% of passenger and 96% of freight traffic. Road transport services are largely in the hands of the private sector, which handles around 95% of freight traffic. The National Highway Authority is responsible for the maintenance of national highways and motorways. The highway and motorway system depends mainly on north–south links, connecting the southern ports to the populous provinces of Punjab and NWFP. Although this network only accounts for 4.2% of total road length, it carries 85 percent of the country's traffic.[186][187]

Nagan Interchange is one of the busiest intersections in Karachi.
Pakistan Railways, under the Ministry of Railways, operates the railroad system. Railway was the primary means of transport till 1970. In the two decades from around 1990, there was a marked shift in traffic from rail to highways. Now the railway's share of inland traffic is only 10% for passengers and 4% for freight traffic. The total rail track decreased from 8,775 km in 1990–91 to 7,791 km in 2011.[186][188] Pakistan expects to use the rail service to boost foreign trade with China, Iran and Turkey.[189][190]
Pakistan had 35 airports in 2007–8. The state-run Pakistan International Airlines is the major airline; it carries about 73% of domestic passengers and all domestic freight. Karachi's Jinnah International Airport is the principal international gateway to Pakistan, although Islamabad and Lahore also handle significant amounts of traffic. Pakistan's major seaports are Karachi, Muhammad bin Qasim and Gwadar, which is still[when?] under construction.[186][188]
Science and technology
Main articles: Science and technology in Pakistan and List of Pakistani inventions and discoveries

The boot sector of an infected floppy by Brain virus; the world's first computer virus, made in Pakistan.[191]
Pakistan is active in physics research. Every year, scientists from around the world are invited by the Pakistan Academy of Sciences and the Pakistan Government to participate in the International Nathiagali Summer College on Physics.[192] Pakistan hosted a international seminar on Physics in Developing Countries for International Year of Physics 2005.[193] Pakistani theoretical physicist Abdus Salam won a Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the electroweak interaction.[194]
In medicine, Salimuzzaman Siddiqui was the first Pakistani scientist to bring the therapeutic constituents of the Neem tree to the attention of natural products chemists.[195] Pakistani neurosurgeon Ayub Ommaya invented the Ommaya reservoir, a system for treatment of brain tumours and other brain conditions.[196]
Pakistan has an active space program led by its space research agency, SUPARCO. Polish-Pakistani aerospace engineer W. J. M. Turowicz developed and supervised the launch of the Rehbar-I rocket from Pakistani soil, making Pakistan the first South Asian country to launch a rocket into space.[197] Pakistan launched its first satellite, Badr-I, from China in 1990, becoming the first Muslim country and second South Asian country to put a satellite into space.[198] In 1998, Pakistan became the seventh country in the world to successfully develop and its own nuclear weapons.[199]
Pakistan is one of a small number of countries that have an active research presence in Antarctica. The Pakistan Antarctic Programme was established in 1991. Pakistan has two summer research stations on the continent and plans to open another base, which will operate all year round.[200]
Electricity in Pakistan is generated and distributed by two vertically integrated public sector utilities: the Karachi Electric Supply Corporation (KESC) for Karachi and the Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) for the rest of Pakistan.[201] Nuclear power in Pakistan is provided by three licensed commercial nuclear power plants under Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC).[202] Pakistan is the first Muslim country in the world to embark on a nuclear power program.[203] Commercial nuclear power plants generate roughly 3% of Pakistan's electricity, compared with about 64% from thermal and 33% from hydroelectric power.[201]
Main article: Education in Pakistan

The Lahore University of Management Sciences, one of Pakistan's top ranking business management universities
The constitution of Pakistan requires the state to provide free primary and secondary education.[204] At the time of independence Pakistan had only one university, the University of the Punjab.[205] As of September 2011 it has 136 universities, of which 74 are public universities and 62 are private universities.[206] It is estimated that there are 3193 technical and vocational institutions in Pakistan,[207] and there are also madrassahs that provide free Islamic education and offer free board and lodging to students, who come mainly from the poorer strata of society.[208] After criticism over terrorists' use of madrassahs for recruitment, efforts have been made to regulate them.[209]
Education in Pakistan is divided into six main levels: pre-primary (preparatory classes); primary (grades one through five); middle (grades six through eight); high (grades nine and ten, leading to the Secondary School Certificate); intermediate (grades eleven and twelve, leading to a Higher Secondary (School) Certificate); and university programmes leading to graduate and postgraduate degrees.[207] Pakistani private schools also operate a parallel secondary education system based on the curriculum set and administered by the Cambridge International Examinations. Some students choose to take the O level and A level exams conducted by the British Council.[210]
Government is in development stage[timeframe?] of extending English medium education to all schools across the country.[211] By 2013 all educational institutions in Sindh will have to provide Chinese language courses, reflecting China's growing role as a superpower and Pakistan's close ties with China.[212]
Literacy rate of population above ten years of age in the country is 58.5%. Male literacy is 70.2% while female literacy rate is 46.3%.[174] Literacy rates vary by region and particularly by sex; for instance, female literacy in tribal areas is 3%.[213] The government launched a nationwide initiative in 1998 with the aim of eradicating illiteracy and providing a basic education to all children.[214] Through various educational reforms, by 2015 the ministry of education expects to attain 100% enrolment levels among children of primary school age and a literacy rate of 86% among people aged over 10.[215]

Main articles: Demographics of Pakistan and Pakistani people
See also: Ethnic groups in Pakistan and Religion in Pakistan

Population density
With 177.1 million residents reported in 2011, Pakistan is the sixth most populated country in the world, behind Brazil and ahead of Bangladesh. Its 2.03% population growth rate is the highest among the SAARC countries and gives an annual increase of 3.6 million. The population is projected to reach 210.13 million by 2020 and to double by 2045. In 1947, Pakistan had a population of 32.5 million.[175][216] From 1990 to 2009 it increased by 57.2%.[217] By 2030 it is expected to overtake Indonesia as the largest Muslim country in the world.[218][219][220] Pakistan is a 'young' nation, with a median age of about 20 and 104 million people under 30 in 2010.[175]
The majority of southern Pakistan's population lives along the Indus River. Karachi is its most populous city.[221] In the northern half of the country, most of the population lives in an arc formed by the cities of Lahore, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Gujrat, Jhelum, Sargodha, Sheikhupura, Nowshera, Mardan and Peshawar. During 1990–2008, city dwellers made up 36% of Pakistan's population, making it the most urbanised nation in South Asia.[73][175] Furthermore, 50% of Pakistanis live in towns of 5,000 people or more.[222]
Expenditure on health was 2.6% of GDP in 2009.[223] Life expectancy at birth was 65.4 years for females and 63.6 years for males in 2010. The private sector accounts for about 80% of outpatient visits. Approximately 19% of the population and 30% of children under five are malnourished.[164] Mortality of the under-fives was 87 per 1,000 live births in 2009.[223] About 20% of the population live below the international poverty line of US$1.25 a day.[224]
More than sixty languages are spoken in Pakistan, including a number of provincial languages. Urdu, the lingua franca and a symbol of Muslim identity and national unity, is the national language and is understood by over 75% of Pakistanis.[137][225] English is the official language of Pakistan, used in official business, government, and legal contracts;[73] the local dialect is known as Pakistani English. Punjabi is the commonest native language in Punjab and has many native speakers. Saraiki is mainly spoken in South Punjab. Pashto is the provincial language of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindhi is the provincial language of Sindh, while Balochi is dominant in Balochistan.[3][34][226]

v t e Largest cities or towns of Pakistan
2010 estimate[227]
Rank City name Province Pop. Rank City name Province Pop.


1 Karachi Sindh 13,205,339 11 Sargodha Punjab 600,501

2 Lahore Punjab 7,129,609 12 Bahawalpur Punjab 543,929
3 Faisalabad Punjab 4,880,675 13 Sialkot Punjab 510,863
4 Rawalpindi Punjab 3,991,656 14 Sukkur Sindh 493,438
5 Multan Punjab 1,606,481 15 Larkana Sindh 456,544
6 Hyderabad Sindh 1,578,367 16 Sheikhupura Punjab 426,980
7 Gujranwala Punjab 1,569,090 17 Jhang Punjab 372,645
8 Peshawar Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 1,439,205 18 Rahim Yar Khan Punjab 353,112
9 Quetta Balochistan 896,090 19 Mardan Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 352,135
10 Islamabad Capital Territory 689,249 20 Gujrat Punjab 336,727

The Kalash people of northern Pakistan are unique in their customs and religion.
The population comprises several ethnic groups. As of 2009, the Punjabi population dominates with 78.7 million (44.15%), followed by 27.2 million (15.42%) Pashtuns, 24.8 million (14.1%) Sindhis, 14.8 million (10.53%) Seraikis, 13.3 million (7.57%) Muhajirs and 6.3 million (3.57%) Balochs. The remaining 11.1 million (4.66%) belong to various ethnic minorities.[228] There is also a large worldwide Pakistani diaspora, numbering over seven million.[229]
Pakistan's census does not include immigrant groups such as the 1.7 million registered refugees from neighbouring Afghanistan, who are found mainly in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and FATA areas, with small numbers in Karachi and Quetta.[230][231] As of 1995, there were more than 1.6 million Bengalis, 650,000 Afghans, 200,000 Burmese, 2,320 Iranians and Filipinos and hundreds of Nepalese, Sri Lankans and Indians living in Karachi.[232][233] Pakistan hosts more refugees than any other country in the world.[234]

Faisal Mosque, in Islamabad, is Pakistan's largest mosque.
Main article: Religion in Pakistan
Pakistan is the second most populous Muslim-majority country[235] and has the second largest Shi'a population in the world.[236] About 97% of Pakistanis are Muslim. The majority are Sunni, with an estimated 5–20% Shi'a.[34][237][238] A further 2.3% are Ahmadis,[239] who are officially considered non-Muslims by virtue of a 1974 constitutional amendment.[240] There are also several Quraniyoon communities.[241][242] Although the Muslim denominations usually coexist peacefully, sectarian violence occurs sporadically.[243]
Sufism, a mystical Islamic tradition, has a long history and a large popular following in Pakistan. Popular Sufi culture is centered on Thursday night gatherings at shrines and annual festivals which feature Sufi music and dance. Contemporary Islamic fundamentalists criticize its popular character, which in their view, does not accurately reflect the teachings and practice of the Prophet and his companions. There have been terrorist attacks directed at Sufi shrines and festivals, 5 in 2010 that killed 64 people.[244][245]
After Islam, Hinduism and Christianity are the largest religions in Pakistan, each with 2,800,000 (1.6%) adherents in 2005.[34] They are followed by the Bahá'í Faith, which has a following of 30,000, then Sikhism, Buddhism and Parsis, each claiming 20,000 adherents,[237] and a very small community of Jains.
Culture and society

Main article: Culture of Pakistan
Pakistani society is largely hierarchical, emphasising local cultural etiquettes and traditional Islamic values that govern personal and political life. The basic family unit is the extended family,[246] although there has been a growing trend towards nuclear families for socio-economic reasons.[247] The traditional dress for both men and women is the Shalwar Kameez; trousers and shirts are also popular among men.[23] The middle class has increased to around 30 million and the upper and upper-middle classes to around 17 million in recent decades, and power is shifting from rural landowners to the urbanised elites.[248] Pakistani festivals like Eid ul-Fitr, Eid al-Adha and Ramadan are mostly religious in origin.[246] Increasing globalisation has resulted in Pakistan ranking 56th on the A.T. Kearney/FP Globalization Index.[249]
Media and entertainment
Main articles: Cinema of Pakistan, Media of Pakistan, and Music of Pakistan

Rubab, a traditional musical instrument from northwest Pakistan
State-owned Pakistan Television Corporation (PTV) and Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation for radio were the dominant media outlets until the start of the 21st century. The end of PTV's monopoly led to a boom in electronic media, which gained greater political influence. There are now numerous private television channels that enjoy a large degree of freedom of speech.[250] In addition to the national entertainment and news channels, foreign television channels and films are also available to most Pakistanis via cable and satellite television.[250][251] There is a small indigenous film industry based in Lahore and Peshawar, known as Lollywood. While Bollywood films were banned from public cinemas from 1965 until 2008, they have remained important in popular culture.[252][253]
Pakistani music ranges from diverse provincial folk music and traditional styles such as Qawwali and Ghazal Gayaki to modern forms fusing traditional and western music, such as the blend of Qawwali and western music by Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan.[254][255] Pakistan has many famous folk singers, such as the late Alam Lohar, who is also well known in Indian Punjab. The arrival of Afghan refugees in the western provinces has stimulated interest in Pashto music, although there has been intolerance of it in some places.[256]
Main article: Literature of Pakistan

Muhammad Iqbal, conceiver of Pakistan and its national poet, aspired to a separate nation for Muslims.
Pakistan has literature in Urdu, Sindhi, Punjabi, Pushto, Baluchi, Persian, English and many other languages.[257] Before the 19th century it consisted mainly of lyric and religious poetry, mystical and folkloric works. During the colonial age, native literary figures influenced by western literary realism took up increasingly varied topics and narrative forms. Prose fiction is now very popular.[258][259]
The national poet of Pakistan, Muhammad Iqbal, wrote poetry in Urdu and Persian and is read in Afghanistan, Iran, Indonesia, India and the Arab world. He was a strong proponent of the political and spiritual revival of Islamic civilisation and encouraged Muslims binding all over the world to bring about successful revolution.[260][261][262]
Well-known representatives of contemporary Pakistani Urdu literature include Faiz Ahmed Faiz. Sadequain is known for his calligraphy and paintings.[259] Sufi poets Shah Abdul Latif, Bulleh Shah, Mian Muhammad Bakhsh and Khawaja Farid are very popular in Pakistan.[263] Mirza Kalich Beg has been termed the father of modern Sindhi prose.[264]
Main article: Pakistani architecture

The Lahore Fort, a landmark built during the Mughal era, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Pakistani architecture has four recognised periods: pre-Islamic, Islamic, colonial and post-colonial. With the beginning of the Indus civilisation around the middle of the 3rd millennium BCE,[265] an advanced urban culture developed for the first time in the region, with large buildings, some of which survive to this day.[266] Mohenjo Daro, Harappa and Kot Diji are among the pre-Islamic settlements that are now tourist attractions.[140] The rise of Buddhism and the Persian and Greek influence led to the development of the Greco-Buddhist style, starting from the 1st century CE. The high point of this era was reached at the peak of the Gandhara style. An example of Buddhist architecture is the ruins of the Buddhist monastery Takht-i-Bahi in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.[267]
The arrival of Islam in today's Pakistan meant a sudden end of Buddhist architecture in the area and a smooth transition to the predominantly pictureless Islamic architecture. The most important Persian-style building still standing is the tomb of the Shah Rukn-i-Alam in Multan. During the Mughal era, design elements of Persian-Islamic architecture were fused with and often produced playful forms of Hindustani art. Lahore, occasional residence of Mughal rulers, exhibits many important buildings from the empire. Most prominent among them are the Badshahi mosque, the fortress of Lahore with the famous Alamgiri Gate, the colourful, Persian-style Wazir Khan Mosque, the Shalimar Gardens in Lahore and the Shahjahan Mosque in Thatta. In the British colonial period, predominantly functional buildings of the Indo-European representative style developed from a mixture of European and Indian-Islamic components. Post-colonial national identity is expressed in modern structures like the Faisal Mosque, the Minar-e-Pakistan and the Mazar-e-Quaid.[268]
Main article: Pakistani cuisine

A variety of Pakistani dishes cooked using the Tandoori method
Pakistani cuisine is a blend of cooking traditions from different regions of the Indian subcontinent, originating from the royal kitchens of sixteenth-century Mughal emperors. It has similarities to North Indian cuisine, although Pakistan has a greater variety of meat dishes. Pakistani cooking uses large quantities of spices, herbs and seasoning. Garlic, ginger, turmeric, red chilli and garam masala are used in most dishes, and home cooking regularly includes curry. Chapati, a thin flat bread made from wheat, is a staple food, served with curry, meat, vegetables and lentils. Rice is also common; it is served plain or fried with spices and is also used in sweet dishes.[137][269][270] Lassi is a traditional drink in the Punjab region. Black tea with milk and sugar is popular throughout Pakistan and is taken daily by most of the population.[23][271]
Main article: Sports in Pakistan

Hockey is the National sport[143]
The national sport of Pakistan is hockey, in which it has earned 8 of its 10 Olympic medals,[272] including three gold medals (1960, 1968, and 1984). Pakistan has also won the Hockey World Cup a record four times (1971, 1978, 1982, 1994).[273]
Cricket, however, is the most popular game across the country.[274] The national cricket team has won the Cricket World Cup once (in 1992), been runners-up once (in 1999), and co-hosted the tournament twice (in 1987 and 1996). Pakistan were runners-up in the inaugural 2007 ICC World Twenty20 in South Africa and won the 2009 ICC World Twenty20 in England. Lately, however, Pakistani cricket has suffered severely because teams have refused to tour Pakistan for fear of terrorism. No teams have toured Pakistan since March 2009, when militants attacked the touring Sri Lankan cricket team.[275]
Squash is another sport in which Pakistanis have excelled in international competition. Successful world-class squash players such as Jahangir Khan and Jansher Khan won the World Open Squash Championship several times during their careers.[276] Jahangir Khan also won the British Open a record ten times.[277] Pakistan has competed many times at the Olympics in field hockey, boxing, athletics, swimming, and shooting.[278] Pakistan's Olympic medal tally stands at 10 of which 8 were earned in hockey.[279] The Commonwealth Games and Asian Games medal tallies stand at 65 and 160 respectively.[citation needed][280]
At national level, football and polo are popular, with regular national events in different parts of the country. Boxing, billiards, snooker, rowing, kayaking, caving, tennis, contract bridge, golf and volleyball are also actively pursued, and Pakistan has produced regional and international champions in these sports.[21][276][278]

^ "Excludes data for Pakistani territories of Kashmir; Azad Kashmir (13,297 km2 or 5,134 sq mi) and Gilgit–Baltistan (72,520 km2 or 28,000 sq mi).[4] Including these territories would produce an area figure of 881,912 km2 (340,508 sq mi)."

^ "The State Emblem". Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of Pakistan..
^ "Population by Mother Tongue". Population Census Organization, Government of Pakistan. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
^ a b "Background Note: Pakistan-Profile". State.Gov. 2010-10-06. Retrieved 2012-05-29.
^ Geohive - Pakistan statistics
^ "Population (In Millions) By Province, 2011". Ministry of Population Welfare, Government of Pakistan. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
^ "Area, Population, Density and Urban/Rural Proportion by Administrative Units". Population Census Organization, Government of Pakistan. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
^ a b c d "Pakistan". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 20 April 2012.
^ "Human Development Report 2011. Human development index trends: Table 1" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. p. 219. Retrieved 12 November 2011.
^ Miguel Loureiro (28 July 2005). "Driving—the good, the bad and the ugly". Daily Times (Pakistan). Retrieved 10 January 2010.
^ Barry Buzan (2004). The United States and the great powers: world politics in the twenty-first century. Polity. pp. 71, 99. ISBN 978-0-7456-3374-9. Retrieved 27 December 2011.
^ Hussein Solomon. "South African Foreign Policy and Middle Power Leadership". Retrieved 27 December 2011.
^ Choudhary Rahmat Ali (28 January 1933). "Now or never: Are we to live or perish for ever?". Columbia University. Retrieved 4 December 2007.
^ Choudhary Rahmat Ali (28 January 1933). Now or Never. Are we to live or perish forever?.
^ S.M. Ikram (1 January 1995). Indian Muslims and partition of India. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. pp. 177–. ISBN 978-81-7156-374-6. Retrieved 23 December 2011.
^ Rahmat Ali. "Rahmat Ali ::Now or Never". The Pakistan National Movement. p. 2. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
^ Roderic H. Davidson (1960). "Where is the Middle East?". Foreign Affairs 38 (4): 665–675. DOI:10.2307/20029452.
^ Parth R. Chauhan. "An Overview of the Siwalik Acheulian & Reconsidering Its Chronological Relationship with the Soanian – A Theoretical Perspective". Sheffield Graduate Journal of Archaeology. University of Sheffield. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
^ a b c d Vipul Singh (2008). The Pearson Indian History Manual for the UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Examination. Dorling Kindesley, licensees of Pearson Education India. pp. 3–4, 15, 88–90, 152, 162. ISBN 81-317-1753-4. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
^ Robert Arnett (15 July 2006). India Unveiled. Atman Press. pp. 180–. ISBN 978-0-9652900-4-3. Retrieved 23 December 2011.
^ Meghan A. Porter. "Mohenjo-Daro". Minnesota State University. Archived from the original on 22 December 2011. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
^ a b Marian Rengel (2004). Pakistan: a primary source cultural guide. New York, NY: The Rosen Publishing Group Inc. pp. 58–59,100–102. ISBN 0-8239-4001-2. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
^ "Britannica Online – Rigveda". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
^ a b c Sarina Singh; Lindsay Brow; Paul Clammer; Rodney Cocks; John Mock (2008). Pakistan & the Karakoram Highway. Lonely Planet. p. 60,128,376. ISBN 978-1-74104-542-0. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
^ David W. del Testa, ed. (2001). Government Leaders, Military Rulers, and Political Activists. Westport, Connecticut: The Oryx Press. p. 7. ISBN 1-57356-153-3. Retrieved 15 April 2012.
^ Ahmad Hasan Dani. "Guide to Historic Taxila". The National Fund for Cultural Heritage. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
^ Joseph Needham (1994). A selection from the writings of Joseph Needham. McFarland & Co. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-89950-903-7. "When the men of Alexander the Great came to Taxila in India in the fourth century BC they found a university there the like of which had not been seen in Greece, a university which taught the three Vedas and the eighteen accomplishments and was still existing when the Chinese pilgrim Fa-Hsien went there about AD 400."
^ Hermann Kulke; Dietmar Rothermund (2004). A History of India. Routledge. p. 157. ISBN 0-415-32919-1. "In the early centuries the centre of Buddhist scholarship was the University of Taxila."
^ Balakrishnan Muniapan; Junaid M. Shaikh (2007). "Lessons in corporate governance from Kautilya's Arthashastra in ancient India". World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development 2007 3 (1): 50–61. DOI:10.1504/WREMSD.2007.012130.
^ Radha Kumud Mookerji (2nd ed. 1951; reprint 1989). Ancient Indian Education: Brahmanical and Buddhist. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 478, 479. ISBN 81-208-0423-6.
^ Ira Marvin Lapidus (2002). A history of Islamic societies. Cambridge University Press. pp. 382–384. ISBN 0-521-77933-2.
^ Andre Wink (1996). Al Hind the Making of the Indo Islamic World. Brill Academic Publishers. p. 152. ISBN 90-04-09249-8.
^ a b "History in Chronological Order". Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of Pakistan. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
^ Robert L. Canfield (2002). Turko-Persia in historical perspective. Cambridge University Press. pp. 4–21. ISBN 978-0-521-52291-5. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
^ a b c d e f g "Country Profile: Pakistan" (PDF). Library of Congress. 2005. pp. 2, 3, 6, 8. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
^ Lion M. G. Agrawal (2008). Freedom fighters of India (in four volumes). Gyan Publishing House. pp. 1–4. ISBN 978-81-8205-470-7. Retrieved 14 March 2012.
^ John Farndon (1 March 1999). Concise encyclopaedia. Dorling Kindersley Limited. p. 455. ISBN 0-7513-5911-4.
^ Daniel Lak (4 March 2008). India express: the future of a new superpower. Viking Canada. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-670-06484-7. Retrieved 14 March 2012.
^ "Sir Muhammad Iqbal's 1930 Presidential Address". Speeches, Writings, and Statements of Iqbal. Retrieved 19 December 2006.
^ a b Stanley Wolpert (2002). Jinnah of Pakistan. Oxford University Press. pp. 306–332. ISBN 0-19-577462-0.
^ William D. Rubinstein (2004). Genocide: a history.. Pearson Longman Publishers. p. 270. ISBN 0-582-50601-8.
^ Subir Bhaumik (1996). Insurgent Crossfire: North-East India. Lancer Publishers. p. 6. ISBN 978-1-897829-12-7. Retrieved 15 April 2012.
^ "Resolution adopted by the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan". Mount Holyoke College. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
^ a b "Pakistan". Retrieved 27 December 2011.
^ "29 February 1956 – Pakistan becomes a republic". Sify News. Sify Technologies. 29 February 2008. Retrieved 8 July 2010.
^ James Wynbrandt (2009). A brief history of Pakistan. Infobase Publishing. pp. 190–197. ISBN 978-0-8160-6184-6. Retrieved 27 December 2011.
^ a b Anis Chowdhury; Wahiduddin Mahmud (2008). Handbook on the South Asian economies. Edward Elgar Publishing. pp. 72–75. ISBN 978-1-84376-988-0. Retrieved 27 December 2011.
^ Mission with a Difference. Lancer Publishers. p. 17. GGKEY:KGWAHUGNPY9. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
^ a b Adam Jones (2004). Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction. Routledge. pp. 420. ISBN 978-0-415-35384-7.
^ a b c d R. Jahan (2004). Samuel Totten. ed. Teaching about genocide: issues, approaches, and resources. Information Age Publishing. pp. 147–148. ISBN 978-1-59311-074-1.
^ "1971 war summary". BBC. 2002. Retrieved 16 March 2009.
^ Samuel Totten; Paul Robert Bartrop; Steven L. Jacobs. Dictionary of Genocide: A-L. Volume 1: Greenwood. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-313-32967-8.
^ M. Zafar. "How Pakistan Army moved into the Political Arena". Defence Journal. Retrieved 15 March 2009.
^ "Bhutto was father of Pakistan's Atom Bomb Programme". International Institute for Strategic Studies. Retrieved 19 December 2011.
^ Pervez Amerali Hoodbhoy (23 January 2011). "Pakistan’s nuclear bayonet". The Herald. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
^ Sushil Khanna. "The Crisis in the Pakistan Economy". Revolutionary Democracy. Retrieved 16 November 2011.
^ Michael Heng Siam-Heng; Ten Chin Liew (2010). State and Secularism: Perspectives from Asia. Singapore: World Scientific. p. 202. ISBN 978-981-4282-37-6. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
^ Steve Coll. Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001 (23 February 2004 ed.). Penguin Press HC. p. 720. ISBN 978-1-59420-007-6.
^ Odd Arne Westad (2005). The global Cold War: third world interventions and the making of our times. Cambridge University Press. pp. 348–358. ISBN 978-0-521-85364-4. Retrieved 22 January 2012.
^ Marie Chene. "Overview of corruption in Pakistan". Anti Corruption Resource Centre. Retrieved 23 December 2011.
^ Ishrat Husain (2009). "Pakistan & Afghanistan: Domestic Pressures and Regional Threats : The Role of Politics in Pakistan's Economy". Journal of International Affairs 63 (1): 1–18.
^ a b "India launches Kashmir air attack". BBC News. 26 May 1999. Retrieved 5 August 2008.
^ "Pakistan after the coup: Special report". BBC. 12 October 2000. Retrieved 17 March 2009.
^ "Pakistan Among Top 10 Reformers". World Bank. 12 September 2005. Retrieved 23 December 2011.
^ "Performance of 12th NationalAssembly of Pakistan-" (PDF).

No comments:

Post a Comment